In this section, you will find a description of every key reference used by Ancient Coin Traders to attribute all ancient coins in the catalogue. A link has been included for those ancient coin references available online. This section will contiue to be updated.

List of References and Abbreviations

Imhoof-Blumer, F. ed. Die antiken Münzen Nord-Griechenlands. (Berlin 1898-1913), Available Online
ANS Kushan
Jongeward, D. & J. Cribb., Kushan, Kushano-Sasanian, and Kidarite Coins: A Catalogue of Coins from the American Numismatic Society (New York 2015)
Thompson, M., “The Armenak Hoard (IGCH 1423)” in ANSMN 31 (New York 1986)
Banti, A. & L. Simonetti., Corpus Nummorum Romanorum (Florence 1972-1979)
BCD Peloponnesos II
The BCD Collection of Coins of the Peloponnesos Part II, Classical Numismatic Group, Mail Bid Sale 81/2, Auction Catalogue (2009)
BCD Thessaly II
The BCD Collection of the Coinage of Thessaly, Classical Numismatic Group, Triton XV Auction (2012), Available Online
A Catalogue of the Greek Coins in the British Museum, Available Online
vol. 1: Italy (London 1873)
vol. 2: Sicily (London 1876)
vol. 3.: The Tauric Chersonese, Sarmatia, Dacia, Moesia, Thrace, &c (London 1877)
vol. 4: Seleucid Kings of Syria (London 1878)
vol. 5: Macedonia (London 1879)
vol. 6: The Ptolemies, Kings of Egypt (London 1883)
vol. 7: Thessaly to Aetolia (London 1883)
vol. 8: Central Greece (London 1884)
vol. 9: Crete and the Aegean Islands (London 1886)
vol. 10: Peloponnesus (London 1887)
vol. 11: Attica, Megaris, Aegina (London 1888)
vol. 12: Corinth and Colonies (London 1889)
vol. 13: Pontus, Paphlagonia, Bithynia and Kingdom of Bosporus (London 1889)
vol. 14: Mysia (London 1892)
vol. 15: Alexandria and the Nomes (London 1892)
vol. 16: Ionia (London 1892)
vol. 17: Troas, Aeolis and Lesbos (London 1894)
vol. 18: Caria and the Islands (London 1897)
vol. 19: Lycia, Pamphylia and Pisidia (London 1897)
vol. 20: Galatia, Cappadocia and Syria (London 1899)
vol. 21: Lycaonia, Isauria and Cilicia (London 1900)
vol. 22: Lydia (London 1902)
vol. 23: Parthia (London 1903)
vol. 24: Cyprus (London 1904)
vol. 25: Phrygia (London 1906)
vol. 26: Phoenicia (London 1910)
vol. 27: Palestine (London 1914)
vol. 28: Arabia, Mesopotamia, Persia (London 1922)
vol. 29: Cyrenaica (London 1927)
BMC Online
The British Museum Collection Online, Accessible Here
Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum:
Vol. 1: Augustus to Vitellius (London 1923)
Vol. 2: Vespasian to Domitian (London 1930)
Vol. 3: Nerva to Hadrian (London 1936)
Vol. 4: Antoninus Pius to Commodus (London 1940)
Vol. 5: Pertinax to Elagabalus (London 1950)
Vol. 6: Severus Alexander to Pupienus (London 1963)
Boehringer, E., Die Münzen von Syrakus (Berlin and Leipzig 1929), Die-coupling of "Die Münzen von Syrakus" Available Online
Butcher, K.,Coinage in Roman Syria: Northern Syria, 64 BC-AD 253, Royal Numismatic Society Special Publication no. 34 (London 2004)
Calciati, R., Corpus Nummorum Siculorum, The Bronze Coinage (Milan 1983-1987), Volume 1 Available Online
Ceka, H., Questions de numismatique illyrienne, (State University, Tirana 1972)
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l’Empire Romain, Available Online
vol. 1: Pompey to Domitian (Paris 1880)
vol. 2: Nerva to Antoninus Pius (Paris 1883)
vol. 3: Marcus Aurelius to Clodius Albinus (Paris 1883)
vol. 4: Septimius Severus to Maximinus Thrax (Paris 1884)
vol. 5: Gordian I to Valerian II (Paris 1885)
vol. 6: Macrianus to Diocletian & Maximianus (Paris 1886)
vol. 7: Carausius to Constantine & sons (Paris 1888)
vol. 8: Nepotian to Romulus Augustus, plus tesserae & cotorniates (Paris 1888)
Coins of Ancient India
Cunningham, A., Coins of Ancient India from the Earliest Times Down to the Seventh Century A.D. (New Delhi 1891)
Mildenberg, L. & S. Hurter, eds.,The Dewing Collection of Greek Coins, ACNAC 6 (New York 1985)
Drama Hoard: IGCH 404; published in: Bellinger, A. R. “Philippi in Macedonia” in ANSMN 11 (1964), pp. 37-52 and pl. vii-xi, Available Online
Hepworth, R. “The 4th Century BC Magistrate Coinage of the Boiotian Confederacy” in NK 17 (1998)
Herrmann, F. “Die Silbermünzen von Larissa in Thessalien” in ZfN 35 (1925), p. 1-69, Available Online: Text, Plates
Handbook of Greek Coinage:
HGC 1 (not yet published)
HGC 2: Hoover, Oliver D., Handbook of Coins of Sicily (including Lipara), Civic, Royal, Siculo-Punic, and Romano-Sicilian Issues, Sixth to First Centuries BC (London 2012)
HGC 3: Hoover, Oliver D., Handbook of Coins of Macedon and Its Neighbors, Part I: Macedon, Illyria, and Epeiros, Sixth to First Centuries BC (London 2016)
HGC 3: Hoover, Oliver D., Handbook of Coins of Macedon and Its Neighbors, Part II: Thrace, Skythia, and Taurike, Sixth to First Centuries BC (London 2017 - not yet released)
HGC 4 Hoover, Oliver D., Handbook of Coins of Northern and Central Greece, Sixth to First Centuries BC (London 2014)
HGC 5: Hoover, Oliver D., Handbook of Coins of the Peloponnesos: Achaia, Phleiasia, Sikyonia, Elis, Triphylia, Messenia, Lakonia, Argolis, and Arkadia, Sixth to First Centuries BC (London 2011)
HGC 6: Hoover, Oliver D., Handbook of Coins of the Islands: Adriatic, Ionian, Thracian, Aegean, and Carpathian Seas (excluding Crete and Cyprus), Sixth to First Centuries BC (London 2010)
HGC 7: Hoover, Oliver D., Handbook of Coins of Northern and Central Anatolia, Fifth to First Centuries BC (London 2012)
HGC 8 (not yet published)
HGC 9: Hoover, Oliver D., Handbook of Syrian Coins: Royal and Civic Issues, Fourth to First Centuries BC (London 2009)
HGC 10: Hoover, Oliver D., Handbook of Coins of the Southern Levant: Phoenicia, Southern Koile Syria (Including Judaea), and Arabia, Fifth to First Centuries BC (London 2010)
HGC 11 (not yet published)
HGC 12 Hoover, Oliver D. Handbook of Coins of Baktria and Ancient India, Fifth Century BC to First Century AD (London 2013)
HGC 13 (not yet published)
Kushana Numismatics
Shrava S., The Kushana Numismatics (New Delhi 1985)
Le Rider
Le Rider, G., Le monnayage d’argent et d’or de Philippe II frappé en Macédoine de 359 à 294 (Paris, 1977)
Lindgren, H.C., Ancient Bronze Coins: European Mints from the Lindgren Collection (San Mateo, California 1989)
Lorber, C. & Shahar, C., The Silver Facing Head Coins of Larissa (2005), Available Online
Carson, R., P. Hilla and J. Kent, Late Roman Bronze Coinage (London 1960)
Oakley, J., "The Autonomous Wreathed Tetradrachms of Kyme, Aeolis" in ANSMN 27 (New York 1982)
Grose, S.W., Fitzwilliam Musuem. Catalogue of the McClean Collection of Greek Coins, vol. 2: The Greek Mainland, the Aegean Islands, Crete (Cambridge 1926)
Davesne, A. & G. Le Rider., Gülnar II, Le trésor de Meydancikkale (Paris 1989)
Mionnet, T., Description de Médailles antiques grecques et romaines (Paris 1806-1837), Available Online: All Volumes (incl. Supplements), Plates & Monograms
Müller, L., Die Münzen Des Thracishen Konigs Lysimacus (Copenhagen 1858)
Müller Alexander
Müller, L. Numismatique d'Alexandre le Grand; Appendice les monnaies de Philippe II et III, et Lysimaque (Copenhagen 1855-58), Available Online: Text, Plates
Molinari, N. J. & Sisc, N., Potamikon: Sinews of Acheloios, A Comprehensive Catalog of the Bronze Coinage of the Man-Faced Bull, With Essays on Origin and Identity (Oxford 2016)
Price, M.J., The Coinage in the Name of Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhideus (London 1991)
Rec Gen
Waddington, W., E. Babelon and T. Reinach., Recueil Général des Monnaies Grecques d’Asie Mineure (Paris 1904-25; Forni reprint 1984) Avaiable Online
Mattingly H. & E. Sydenham, et al., The Roman Imperial Coinage:
RIC I: Sutherland, C. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. I, From 39 BC to AD 69 (London 1984)
RIC II.1: Carradice, I. & T. Buttrey., The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. II, Part 1: From AD 69 to 96 (London 2007)
RIC II: Mattingly H. & E. Sydenham., The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. II: Vespasian to Hadrian (London 1926)
RIC III: Mattingly, H. & E. Sydenham., The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. III, Antoninus Pius to Commodus (London 1930)
RIC IV: Mattingly, H., E. Sydenham & C., Sutherland. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. IV, From Pertinax to Uranius Antoninus (London, 1986)
RIC V.1: Mattingly, H., E. Sydenham & P. Webb., The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part I, Valerian to Florian (London 1927)
RIC V.2: Mattingly, H., E. Sydenham & P. Webb, The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part II, Probus to Amandus (London 1933)
MER-RIC: Monnaies de l'Empire Romain-Roman Imperial Coinage, AD 268 - 276
RIC VI: Sutherland, R. & C.H.V. Carson., The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. VI, From Diocletian's reform to the death of Maximinus (London, 1967)
RIC VII: Bruun, P., The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. VII, Constantine and Licinius A.D. 313 - 337 (London 1966)
RIC VIII: Carson, R., H. Sutherland & J. Kent., The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. VIII, The Family of Constantine I, A.D. 337-364. (London, 1981)
RIC IX: Pearce, J., The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. IX, Valentinian I - Theodosius I (London 1933)
RIC X: Kent, J., The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. X, The Divided Empire and the Fall of the Western Parts, AD 395-491 (London 1994)
Burnett, A., M. Amandry, et al. Roman Provincial Coinage.
RPC I: Burnett, A., M. Amandry and P.P. Ripollès. Roman Provincial Coinage, vol. I: From the death of Caesar to the death of Vitellius (44 BC-AD 69) (London 1992 and 1998 supplement)
RPC II: Burnett, A. and M. Amandry. Roman Provincial Coinage, vol. II: From Vespasian to Domitian (AD 69-96) (London 1999)
RPC VII: Butcher, M. Gordian I to Gordian III (235–8), Province of Asia (Paris 2006)
RPC Supp. 2: Supplement II (2006) by A. Burnett, M. Amandry, P. P. Ripollès, and I. Carradice.
RPC Online: Accessible Here
Seaby, Sear, Loosley, and King., Roman Silver Coins:
RSC I: Republic to Augustus (London 1978)
RSC II: Tiberius to Commodus (London 1979)
RSC III: Pertinax to Balbinus and Pupienus (London 1982)
RSC IV: Gordian III to Postumus (London 1982)
RSC V: Carausius to Romulus Augustus, (C.E.King & David Sear) (London 1987)
SNG Alpha Bank
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Greece:
pt. 2: The Alpha Bank Collection: Macedonia 1, Alexander I - Perseus (Athens 2000)
pt. 6: The Alpha Bank Collection: From Thessaly to Euboea (Athens 2011)
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, USA: The Collection of the American Numismatic Society:
pt. 2: Lucania (New York 1972)
pt. 3: Bruttium-Sicily I: Abacaenum-Eryx (New York 1975)
pt. 4: Sicily II: Galaria-Styella (New York 1977)
pt. 5: Sicily III: Syracuse-Siceliotes (1975)
pt. 6. Palestine-South Arabia (New York 1981)
pt. 7: Macedonia I: Cities, Thraco-Macedonian Tribes, Paeonian Kings (New York 1987)
pt. 8: Macedonia II: Alexander I - Philip II (New York 1994)
pt. 9: Graeco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek coins (New York 1998)
SNG Ashmolean
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum Great, Britain V, Ashmoleum Museum Oxford, pt. 4: Paeonia-Thessaly (London 1981)
SNG Berry
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, USA I: The Burton Y. Berry collection:
pt. 1: Macedonia to Attica (New York 1961)
pt. 2: Megaris to Egypt (New York 1962)
SNG British Museum
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain IX, The British Museum, vol. 1: The Black Sea (London 1993)
SNG Christomanos
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Greece III: pt. 3: Collection Antonine Chrristomanos: Premiere Partie: Italie - Eubee (Athens 2004)
SNG Copenhagen
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum.
vol. 1: Italy - Sicily (Parts 1-5) (West Milford, NJ, 1981)
vol. 2: Macedonia and Thrace (Parts 6-10) (West Milford, NJ, 1982)
vol. 3: Greece: Thessaly to Aegean Islands (Parts 11-17). (West Milford, NJ 1982)
vol. 4: Bosporus - Lesbos (Parts 18-21) (West Milford, NJ 1982)
vol. 5: Ionia, Caria and Lydia (Parts 22-28) (West Milford, NJ, 1982)
vol. 6: Phrygia to Cilicia (Parts 29-33) (West Milford, NJ 1982)
vol. 7: Cyprus to India (Parts 34-39) (West Milford, NJ 1982)
vol. 8: Egypt, North Africa, Spain-Gaul (Parts 40 - 43)(1994)
Supplement, Acquisitions 1942-1996 (2002)
SNG Elvepidis
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Greece I:
pt. 1: Italie-Sicile-Thrace (Louvain 1970)
pt. 2: Macédoine, Thessalie, Illyrie, Épire, Corcyre (Louvain 1975)
SNG Fitzwilliam
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britian IV, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge: Leake and General Collctions:
pt. 3: Macedonia-Acarnania (London 1951)
pt. 4: Acarnania-Philiasia (London 1958)
SNG Gale
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Australia I: The Gale Collection of South Italian Coins (Sydney 2008)
SNG Leipzig
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Münzsammlung der Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig, vol. 1: Autonome griechische Münzen (München 1993)(
SNG München
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, München Staatlische Münzsammlung
pt. 1: Hispania, Gallia Narbonensis (Berlin, 1968)
pt. 2: Etruria, Umbria, Picenum, Latium, Samnium, Frentani, Campania, Apulia (Berlin, 1970)
pt. 3: Kalabrien-Lukanien (Berlin 1973)
pt. 4: Bruttium. Karthager in Italien (Berlin 1974)
pt. 5: Sikelia (Berlin 1977)
pt. 6: Sikelia. Punier in Sizilien, Lipara, Sardinia, Punier in Sardinien, Nachträge (Berlin 1980)
pt. 7: Taurische Chersonesos, Sarmatien, Dacia, Moesia superior, Moesia inferior (Berlin 1985)
pt. 10/11: Makedonien–Könige (Berlin 2001)
pt. 12: Thessalien, Illyrien, Epirus, Korkyra (Berlin 2007)
pt. 14: Attika, Megaris, Ägina (Berlin 2002)
pt. 19: Troas - Lesbos (Berlin 1991)
pt. 20: Ionien 1 (Frühes Elektron-Priene) (Berlin 1995)
pt. 22: Caria (Berlin 2006)
pt. 23: Lydien (Berlin 1997)
pt. 24: Phrygien (Berlin 1989)
pt. 28: Syrien: Nicht-königliche Prägungen (Berlin 2001)
SNG Kikpe
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Greece VII: The KIKPE Collection of Bronze Coins, vol. 1, (Athens 2012)
SNG Righetti
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Schweiz II: Münzen der Antike: Katalog der Sammlung Jean-Pierre Righetti im Bernischen Historischen Musuem (Bern, Sttutgart, Wien 1993)
SNG Saroglos
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Greece IV: Numismatic Museum, Athens, The Petros Z. Saroglos Collection: Pt 1: Macedonia (Athens 2005)
SNG Soutzos
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Greece V: Numismatic Museum, Athens, The A. G. Soutzos Collection (Athens 2007)
SNG Stockholm
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Sweden II, The collection of the Royal Coin Cabinet National Museum of Monetary History Stockholm: pt. 2 (Stockholm 1980)
SNG Tubingen
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Münzsammlung Universität Tübingen:
pt. 1: Hispania-Sikelia (Berlin 1981)
Pt. 2: Taurische Chersones-Korkyra (Berlin 1982)
Pt. 3: Akarnanien-Bithynien (Berlin 1985)
Pt. 4: Mysien-Ionien (Berlin 1989)
Pt. 5: Karien und Lydien (Berlin 1994)
Pt. 6: Phrygien-Kappadokien; Römische Provinzprägungen in Kleinasien (Berlin, 1998)
SNG von Aulock
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Sammlung Hans Von Aulock
vol. 1: Pontus, Paphlagonia, Bithynia, Mysia, Troas, Aiolis, Lesbos, Ionia (Berlin, 1957)
vol. 2: Caria, Lydia, Phrygia, Lycia, Pamphylia (Berlin, 1962)
vol. 3: Pisidia, Lycaonia, Cilicia, Galatia, Cappadocia, Cyprus, Imperial Cistophori, Posthumous Lysimachus, Alexander tetradrachms (Berlin 1964)
vol. 4: Supplement (Berlin 1967)
Sear, D.R., Byzantine Coins and Their Values (London 1987)
Sear, D. R., The History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators 49-27 BC (London 1998)
Sear, D.R.,Greek Coins and Their Values:
vol. 1: Europe (London 1978)
vol. 2 : Asia and Africa (London 1979)
Sear, D.R., Greek Imperial Coins and Their Values (London 1982)
Sear, D.R., Roman Coins and Their Values:
Sear, D.R., Roman Coins and Their Values, Volume I: Republic to the Flavians (London 2000)
Sear, D.R.,. Roman Coins and Their Values, Volume II: Nerva to Severus Alexander (London 2002)
Sear, D.R., Roman Coins and Their Values, Volume III: Maximinus I to Carinus (London 2005)
Sear, D.R., Roman Coins and Their Values, Volume IV: Diocletian To Constantine I, AD 284-337 (London 211)
Sear, D.R., Roman Coins and Their Values, Volume V: The Christian Empire: The Later Constantinian Dynasty and the Houses of Valentinian and Theodosius and Their Successors, Constantine II to Zeno, AD 337-491 (London 2014)
Svoronos, J.N., "Νομισματική τών Δελφών", BCH 15 (1896), pp. 5-54
Thompson, M., "The mints of Lysimachus", dans Kraay, C.M. et Jenkins, G.K.(éds), Essays in Greek Coinage Presented to Stanley Robinson (Oxford 1968), pp. 163-182
Forrer, L. Descriptive Catalogue of the Collection of Greek Coins formed by Sir Hermann Weber, Available Online: Volume I, Volume II, Volume III Part 1, Volume III Part 2, ,Plates Volume I, Plates Volume II, Plates Volume III
vol. I: Auriol find class, Hispania, Gallia, Britannia, Italy and Sicily (London, 1933)
vol. II: Macedon, Thrace, Thessaly, North western, central and southern Greece (London, 1924)
vol. III: pt. 1: Asia: Bosporus. Colchis. Pontus. Paphlagonia, Bithynia, Mysia, Troas, Aeolis, Lesbos, Ionia, Caria, Lydia (London, 1926)
vol. III: pt. 2: Asia: Phrygia, Lycia, Pamphylia, Pisidia, Cilicia, Cyprus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Syria, Phoenicia, Palestine, Arabia, Mesopotamia, Persia, Persis, Characene, Bactria, Africa: Egypt, Cyrenaica, Libya, Zeugitana, Islands between Africa and Sicily, Numidia, Mauretania, Incerta (London 1929)
Mac Dowall, D.W., "The Western Coinages of Nero", ANSNNM 161 (New York 1979)